Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar state on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. of 28,833 sq mi (74,677 km²). Indian cricket team captain M S Dhoni belongs to Jharkhand.
The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Sindri, Deoghar, Hazaribagh and Gumla.
The name “Jharkhand” comes from the Sanskrit word Jharikhanda, which is the ancient name of the region’s dense forest.
Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.
Since the state is populated by people from all over India, food that’s found in the state is varied. Native inhabitants have a cuisine in which spices are rarely used and rice is the staple. The usual cooking method is boiling. Meat is often roasted, wrapped in leaves, and covered with soil or ash under the fire.
Local alcoholic drinks include rice wine, originally known as Handiya, named after the vessel (earthen pot) used to make it. Another common liquor is called Mahu, made from a fruit, found mainly in Jharkhand which has the same name.
There are many foods that are a part of the traditional cuisine that are also known for their medicinal values, like Kurthi, which is used like a kind of pulses and is considered a cure for kidney stones. Fruits such as Jackfruit, Blackberry, Mango, and Litchi are found in abundance.
* South Chotanagpur
* North Chotanagpur
* Santhal Parganas
* Bokaro Steel City
* Betla National Park
* Hazaribagh National Park
* Parasnath Hills
* Sitagarha Hill, Marwateri Basin. The site of a major Buddhist shrine and stone carved stupa dating from the the Mauryan Period.
Jharkhand can fairly claim to be one of the most attractive parts of the Indian peninsula. The scenery of the main plateau is most attractive with its undulations, detached abrupt hills and forest tracts. Belts of sal forests which once covered the plateau still survive on the hills and in broken ground. The palas tree called the flame of the forest with its reddish flowers at the advent of summer is also there, in abundance. To complete the attraction of the Jharkhand, the Adivasis who predominate on the plateau are a lovable and cheerful race.
The plateau on which most of Jharkhand is spread out is called Chotanagpur. The name Nagpur is probably taken from the Nagbanshis who ruled in the area. Chota is a corruption of Chutia, a small village near Ranchi where the Nagbanshis had a fort. The plateau consists of three steps. The highest is in the west of the province rising to around 3,000-3,500 feet above sea level. The next level spread around Ranchi and Hazaribagh in the central sector is around 2,000 feet. The eastern part is the lowest at around 1,000 feet. A part of the plateau slopes into neighbouring West Bengal.
The Adivasis are divided into two main anthropological divisions, the larger consisting of the Mundas, Santhals, Hos and some smaller tribes, and the smaller mainly of Oraons. There is no linguistic connection between the two groups. Oraon is a Dravidian language, while Munda group of languages belong to a larger group of languages known as Austro-Asiatic. The tribes who now inhabit Jharkhand probably moved in from the Gangetic valley displacing earlier races of which little trace is left. The Santhals are the most numerous of the tribes of Austro-Asiatic race.
There is little evidence of movement of Aryans into area till the days of Magadh’s rise and the early Aryan settlers were possibly Jains. Interestingly, the Hindi dialect spoken in the area is called Magadhi. During the Mohammedan rule a fairly large number of Muslims moved into the area and the Hindu rajas encouraged migration of Hindus. The British had a good deal of trouble in asserting their authority over the area.
Coal is found in several fields across Jharkhand – Jharia, Bokaro, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Ramgarh, Giridih, and Santhal Parganas. Large quantities of iron ore are found in Singhbhum.Fire-clay, mica and other mineals are also mined.
Hindi is widely understood throughout the state. Different Adivasi langauages are spoken in different areas. Bengali is spoken in the eastern parts of the state. Oriya is also widely understood and spoken in rajkarswan and sarikela (southern) region. English is understood in the main cities.
Most of the road links into the state are from the north and the east. The western part is more mountainous and hence road links are less. Now links with the south and the west are also being developed. The Grand Trunk Road (NH 2 Kolkata Delhi) cuts across the northern part of the state. NH 6 connecting Kolkata with western India enters the south-east corner of the state for a short span. Ranchi, Bokaro, Jamshedpur and Dhanbad are well connected through neigbouring State and major cities.
The Howrah-Delhi main and Grand Chord lines cut across the northern part of the state. The Howrah-Mumbai lines goes via Jamshedpur in the southern part of state. The Barkakhana-Sonenagar and other links on the western side are gaining in importance.Bokaro, Ranchi, Dhanbad, Tata, Gomo are main railway station of the state.
There are eateries in all cities and towns. Some of the “dhabas” along the highways offer fairly good food although the places may look doubtful. If you are keen about local tastes try out balushais in the small sweetmeat shops. Those travelling in Jharkhand, particulalrly in winter, may look out for Tilkut a dry sweet savoury.
Most of the popular Indian brands are available in the cities and towns in bars and specified shop. In local parlance these are called foreign liquor, although manufactured in India. There some very popular local drinks, mainly handia and mahua. Those who are from outside the state and are not used to these are advised not to take these, because they are quite often spurious and lead to unwanted reactions, even fatalities.
Visitors should be aware that Maoists are very active in Jharkhand. They have frequently blown up railway lines, attacked stations and set land mines. Foreigners have not been targeted in the campaign, though, of course, it is possible to be caught in the violence due to being in the wrong place at the wrong time, so vigilance is required while visiting the state.
Established 15 November 2000
Largest city Jamshedpur
Governor Kateekal Sankaranarayanan
Chief Minister President’s Rule
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (81)
• Density 26,909,428 (13th)
• 360 /km2 (932 /sq mi)
Language(s) Hindi, Santali
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 74,677 km2 (28,833 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-JH