India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometers (4,700 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west; People’s Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean.

India is a republic consisting of 28 states and seven union territories with a parliamentary system of democracy. It has the world’s twelfth largest economy at market exchange rates and the fourth largest in purchasing power. Economic reforms since 1991 have transformed it into one of the fastest growing economies; however, it still suffers from high levels of poverty, illiteracy, disease, and malnutrition. A pluralistic, multilingual, and multi-ethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

Facts on India

Capital                          New Delhi
Largest city                Mumbai
Official languages     Hindi, English
Demonym                    Indian
Government               Federal republic,
Garliamentary democracy
-      President              Smt. Pratibha Patil
-      Prime Minister   Shri Manmohan Singh
-      Chief Justice        Shri K. G. Balakrishnan
Legislature     Sansad
-      Upper House       Rajya Sabha
-      Lower House       Lok Sabha
Independence from United Kingdom
-      Declared               15 August 1947
-      Republic               26 January 1950
-      Total                       3,287,240‡ km2, 1,269,210 sq mi
-      Water (%)              9.56
-      2009 estimate     1,198,003,000
-      2001 census         1,028,610,328
-      Density                   364.4/km2, 943.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP)     2008 estimate
-      Total                        $3.298 trillion
-      Per capita              $2,780
GDP (nominal)     2008 estimate
-      Total                        $1.206 trillion
-      Per capita              $1,017
Gini (2004)                  36.8
HDI (2007)                  0.612
Currency                       Indian rupee (₨) (INR)
Time zone                      IST (UTC+5:30)-Summer(DST) not observed (UTC+5:30)
Drives on the               Left
Internet TLD                .in
Calling code                  91